A Little Bit on Feet and Trimming

The reason my business is called The Whole Horse is obvious – nothing works in exclusion.  In addition to the other horse services I provide, I am also a barefoot trimmer.  I’d like to clarify the context of that a bit here; as I’ll be taking on a limited number of new clients this summer.

I was always a fan of the foot.  I love the shape, the function, the symmetry and… the puzzle.  When I ran a sales barn I was blessed with the very best farrier in the area; he routinely worked magic on the horses that came in.  No left lead?  Let’s look at how this horse stands.  Doesn’t want to use the shoulders?  Let’s consider why.  The list went on and on but he always began from the bottom up.  This was my initial education on a proper trim and shoe job, even though I didn’t know it was happening.

When I moved to my farm, I was out of his travel range.  This was when things got a little weird, so to speak. I met and worked with a number of farriers but they were never able to achieve the seemingly effortless work he had done and my horses began to subtly suffer the consequences.  Training problems.  Joint issues.  Back problems, hock problems.

At the same time I was receiving great encouragement from my new hoof care providers to take things into my own hands. I had a yearling who snapped off a toe; I was handed a rasp and taught to keep his heels level. I’m proud to say he does not have a club foot – not because I was particularly skilled but because I was given the knowledge and tool to prevent it by a generous farrier who didn’t feel threatened by my interest.

Then I had a horse with a laminitis episode.  Again, out came the rasp and an earnest conversation about how if I kept his heels level and short the outcome could be very different than getting into a shoeing package. I was asked to have a little faith, ride it out and monitor it closely with him.  The outcome was fantastic; the horse never rotated, had very little hoof distortion and recovered completely.

I was intrigued.  I began studying.

The next horse came with a bucking problem.  Four shoes, four sheared heels, four contracted feet.  Off came the shoes and he handed me the rasp again.  Once his feet were fixed, he stopped bucking. It was that simple.

My personal horses.. off came the shoes.  Sometimes things were hit or miss. I was studying Pete Ramey and Jamie Jackson’s work and some of it made sense and in practicality worked and some of it didn’t.  I kept what worked, filed the rest for possibility and kept going.

At this point my personal horses and sale horses were now all barefoot and sound.  Of course I had also began feeding them differently.  The elements were coming together.

I began riding with farriers. A pivotal moment was when I was asked by one to draw a picture in the dirt of an ideal foot.  He nodded at my little dirty sketch and said “yes, you see it”. I am deeply grateful for the time, interest and effort the people I have worked have given me.

The foundered horses and ponies came POURING in.   I learned to cast; a skill I am particularly proud of as I can keep a cast on a horse for 4-6 weeks and use them to create nearly any situation without damaging the foot or causing pain by nailing an already sore foot.

I kept studying.  Anatomy, physiology, practical purpose.  KC LaPierre’s dissections. Fran Jurga.

Along the road I learned that the battle between barefoot trimming and shoeing is not productive at all and I refuse to engage in it.

I will continue to hope for a better dialogue about what is best for the horse at any given time; but the people I work with don’t seem to be interested in anything else.  I refer horses  to farriers often when I believe that the horse would benefit from shoes.  I often rehabilitate a horse for a client with the goal of making a foot that is easy for the farrier to shoe and maintain.  I never have been and never will be anti-shoe.

I like the problem feet, I like solving the puzzle. I love to rehabilitate a horses feet and watch the other issues evaporate, just as my original farrier showed me so many years ago.

The journey of fixing a horses feet is often long. In consult with my vet over a horse a few months ago she commented that it takes a year to grow a new hoof entirely but the process of healing the inside is much longer than that.. the second year is when you develop sole depth, stabilized internal structures, strengthened collateral and medial ligaments, and the tendons and ligaments in the leg regain their correct support systems.

I’ve always been a fan of the Thoroughbred and hate that most hoof problems in them are blown off as being breed inherent.  Sometimes this is true; my personal horse has thin walls that he inherited from his TB mom.  He’s sound barefoot as he has excellent internal structure. Occasionally I cast him for extra wall support.  However, I trim many many TB’s and OTTB’s that have excellent feet in every way.  The idea that all TB’s have crappy feet and will be hothouse flowers on them is always a time bomb ticking.  No hoof, no horse is true.  Horses need to stand on four balanced feet in order to have sound upper body structures.  Putting a bandaid on a horses hoof problems will only lead to unsoundness in the rest of the horse.  The time you take working on the bottom saves you time and money working on the top and isn’t that what we want?  A sound horse.

If your horse has problem feet, consider thinking out of the box and looking at solutions that are customized to YOUR horse.  Nutrition, management, expectation during rehabilitation and proper trimming and/or shoeing is a package deal.   Find someone who is interested in your whole horse.  If that’s me, great. If it’s someone else who can do the work, that’s great – it’s the horse that matters.  I wish for you all and your horses four happy feet.  If you’d like to contact me about your horses feet, fill out this form. I’ll be adding limited clients in the Garner/South Raleigh NC area this summer and some in the Chapel Hill/Mebane/Durham areas.

 

Herbs and Other Medicinals – A Return Back To The Good Old Days?

 

I first began on this journey with a horse who was severely metabolic.  This was over ten years ago; there was virtually no information available as to why this guy couldn’t gain muscle, had fat pads, was unhappy in his own skin and had become laminitic for no known reason. In spite of it all I liked the horse; I bought him for a dollar and decided to see what I could do for him.  I figured anything I could do was better than ending up in a kill pen.

At that time I was still feeding processed feeds.  He was thin – or so it seemed, after all,  his ribs showed!  So I began “feeding him up”.  Oh, how I poured the groceries to that horse.  “Quality” feeds – and oil, and beet pulp, and all the good quality hay he could eat.  He became laminitic again.   Clearly feeding a horse simply to make them FAT was not a good idea (keep this in mind as it’s a recurring theme in horse nutrition) so it was back to the drawing board.

I cut out all his processed feeds, simply because I wasn’t sure where else to begin.  I kept the beet pulp as a carrier, added a source of quality protein and.. chaste tree berry. Why?  Because I read that it offered metabolic and adrenal support.  He ate it, so I kept feeding it. I added kelp. I added.. a lot of things.

What I didn’t fully understand at the time was that I had REMOVED inflammatory feed stuffs from his diet; and that was probably the most profound thing I had done for him.  Slowly.. and I do mean slowly… he began to blossom.  Eventually he became rideable and then he was restored to his former glory – a horse no one could take their eyes off of and everyone wanted to ride.

Since then I’ve learned a lot more about metabolic disorders, how they are caused and what you can do to cure them.  Yes, often they can be reversed.  I’ve recently had the opportunity to collaborate with a company who distributes quality herbs and spices and I’m going to begin offering them as part of my nutritional services.   Please inquire as to what will be available and how they should be used.  As always, consult your vet if you have any concerns about feeding your horse herbs or spics.

Expect more information coming on this subject, as not only are herbs and spices helpful for metabolic issue but also can address inflammation and hormonal problems very effectively without the unfortunate side effects of NSAIDS, steroids and artificial hormone manipulation.

 

Probiotics – worth the money?

Some are. Some aren’t.

Gut health is finally being recognized as an essential, if not vital source of well-being for horses.  A tremendous amount of time, energy and money is spent by owners trying to figure out how to prevent ulcers, how to cure ulcers, how to fatten horses up, deal with elderly horses and malabsorption issues and more.

Many horses are put on Gastroguard (omeprazole) without any plan for what to do when they come off of it. This is unfortunate because all gastric acid pump inhibitors cause a rebound effect when they are stopped.  Often horses go right back on them and sometimes even stay on them – sometimes at half or quarter doses – forever.  For what it’s worth, they were never designed for humans or horses to be kept on for long periods of time because you and your horse really do need stomach acid to digest food and they inhibit uptake of calcium.

So what can you do?  If you haven’t considered the link between processed feeds and ulcers, you should. Forage first, nutrition second, calories third.. can all be achieved without a bag of processed feed.  Grass is the ultimate ulcer cure if you have the patience for it to work its magic.

Other things besides ulcers and omeprazole cause gut issues.  Antibiotics are the obvious one.  They kill all bacteria including the good ones.  When you need them, you need them – but afterwards you need to do something to fix the damage.

An often overlooked issue in the gut is laminitis. Laminitis – unless you’ve bedded your horse down on black walnut shavings, or your horse is PPID, or has something like a vaccine or steroid reaction – begins in the hind gut.  Horses who are laminitic need gastric support also.

I do use and recommend a probiotic.  I tried things like Probios.. I saw no change.  I stumbled across this stuff more years ago than I can remember and gave it a try. I liked that it is made by a small company ( was VERY small at the time) that bred dogs and specialized in supplements. I liked how accessible they were and how their product actually worked.  15 years later, I’m still using it.

The Probiotic I Recommend

Nature’s Farmacy Website

I like it so much I’m just going to leave the link here.  I hope it’s of use to ya’ll.  I don’t rep for Nature’s Farmacy like I do Uckele.  They do have a referral cash back program so if you tell them Gayle Dauverd sent you by using one of these links I get a 5% kick back.  That’s nice.  But it’s nicer if your horses stomach doesn’t hurt and a small business makes a solid living.  Cheers!

Hind Gut Ulcers

Hind gut ulcers..

Dr. K's Horse Sense

It’s difficult to go anywhere online (and probably off) where people are talking about horses without having something come up about hind gut ulcers, symptoms and treatments.  There are even commercial supplements out there, including from companies run by people who should know better.  There is no such thing as ‘hindgut ulcer syndrome’ that is a correlate of gastric ulcer syndrome and certainly no cause that a supplement would correctly treat.

TAPEWORMS CECUM

                            Tapeworms are a common cause of hindgut ulcers

It is not unusual today to hear people claiming that 60 to 65% of horses have hind gut ulcers.  However, if you read medicine, surgery and pathology textbooks or the published literature there is no mention of this widespread hindgut ulcer disease. It isn’t even mentioned in the horse health articles for owners on the AAEP.org web site.

When ulceration (an open sore or erosion in the lining of the…

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Your Horses Feet – What You Put In Is What You Get Out..

I recently had the pleasure of having lateral radiographs done of a client’s horses feet.  We took them because it’s smart to have baseline rads in a younger horse for future comparisons and because he has a slightly club-like foot and I wanted to know how much lower I could take his heels.

Turns out his angles were perfect.  This horse has beautiful feet on the outside, concave on the inside and is sound barefoot on nearly every surface. However, his films revealed something – in the year we’ve had him, he’s grown a much healthier, hardier foot – but the work is not done yet.  His soles are still not yet thick enough to shorten his toe anymore than it is – it would drop him down onto his coffin bone.

It’s a process.  It’s a process.  It’s a process.

Here are nutrients found inside horses feet, borrowed from Progressive Nutritions website:

Table 1: NUTRIENTS FOUND INSIDE THE HORSE’S HOOF from high to low
Protein/Amino Acids (94%)
Fat/Oils (3%)
Sulfur
Calcium
Zinc
Copper
Selenium
Carotene (Vitamin A)
Alpha-Tocopherol (Vitamin E)
Biotin

Please note that biotin is LAST on this list.  Protein and amino acids are FIRST, followed by fats and then SULFUR and then a slew of minerals and a few vitamins.  Yet most “hoof supplements” are based on biotin.

Hoof quality, or lack thereof, is the thing I hear the most complaints about.  I do trim, and I do advocate for horses being barefoot but there is a caveat – if the horse is fed correctly, a tremendous amount of improvement can be made in almost any foot. If not, you can forget about it.  The single biggest hoof killer is carbohydrates.  Again, the formula for a healthy horse and foot is forage and nutrition first and carbs last.  If a horse is not fed correctly great feet will not happen.

My vet was thrilled with those films, as both his owner and I were.  We are in this for the long haul.  Another six months or so and those soles will be super thick and the toe will be able to be brought back even more.  Thinking long term is critical when considering what you feed your horse.  While feet get the big complaints, the most common question is “how do I put weight on my horse?”  The usual answers are the answers that cause secondary problems like poor hoof quality.  If you focus on only weight gain, you may sacrifice having a sound horse in the long run. I like a horse in good flesh as much as anyone does – frankly, I like mine a little fat.  But I want that horse standing on good, solid feet and nothing will do that but proper nutrition.

The beautiful thing about this is that the science has been done and the questions have been answered.  There is no need to reinvent the wheel.  Minimize carbs and provide the proper building blocks and every horse will grow a better foot.  Will he trot sound on gravel like this guy? I can’t say.  But if you are struggling with hoof quality, please stop feeding for weight gain or a shiny coat.  You can do your own homework – there are many resources – or you can contact me and I’ll guide you through the changes in your horses diet that will improve his hoof quality.  Incidentally, shiny and fat will follow right along!

 

Everyone Has An Answer?

I’m not quite sure what to title this post, so if anyone has a better one, feel free to leave it in the comments.

I’m often tagged on people’s requests for feed advice on FB forums.  I usually just post my blog address and move on.  Today I checked back on one of them and found no less than 42  advices on what this person should feed her horse to put weight on it. The only information given was that it was a mare and a TB.

To be fair, some of them did inquire as to the horses health and deworming status.  But the majority of them said something like “Tribute! Love the stuff” or “Safechoice and Cool Calm, worked for my horse!”

I suppose you get what you pay for but I was sincerely alarmed at the sheer number of answers, all different. What truly stood out was that there are A LOT of choices out there and clearly people don’t understand what questions to ask and how to sort through the information out there.  That is a daunting task; with all the processed feed sources available I don’t know how anyone could keep up. I suspect most decision are made based on what the feed store sells and a hit or miss approach to feeding.  The amount of trial and error documented in that single thread also made me believe most people would come out better off, financial and for their horse, if they simply consulted first with someone to help them figure out a solid nutritional plan for their horse from the beginning.

I recently went to a feed seminar to observe and while the basic concepts certainly were correct, what it took to get to a complete nutritional profile was just as complicated as any custom feed program. In his defense, he was clear that one feed cannot fit the needs of all horses – in spite of the bag stating exactly that.

When I meet with a new client I get a history of the horses diet, health and work.  I do a physical examination of the horse and discuss its deworming history and dental care. I ask what concerns the client has and what their capacity is for dealing with feeding programs. We discuss hoof and hair coat quality and what those things mean in the bigger picture.  We discuss what their vet’s input has been and what tests might be appropriate to run.  After coming up with an initial plan, I run it through Feed XL to be sure all the major categories are fulfilled and then we do a trial run for 3 months.  There is usually some tweaking to be done after that and some horses change diets between summer and winter (grass, no grass).

Initially it can seem overwhelming.  If you are used to scooping out processed feed from a bag, it can seem downright daunting.  Many of the Uckele products I use can be sourced as individual items or as complete vitamin/mineral supplements; so this can be worked around if necessary .  Uckele will also mix custom supplements if required.  If the horse is kept at a boarding barn, extra care must be given to minimize supplementation or the owner must be willing to bag feed.  Personally I’ve gone this route and been pleased with it; there’s no better assurance that your horse is actually getting the diet you’ve chosen than counting out two weeks worth of bagged feed stuffs and having two weeks of empty bags returned to you.

In the end, the majority of my clients comment that once they got in the habit of feeding comprehensively rather than just scooping out of a bag it became easy.  A few are not able to make the adjustment and so I help them find a simpler solution that works for their horse and them, even if it’s not optimal – sometimes you simply have to meet people where they are at.  This is better resolution than “a scoop of Safe Choice and some Cool and Calm”.  It’s all about the horse and if moving to a quality ration balancer and oats is an improvement, then the horse benefits. And that’s what this is about.

 

Spring Is Coming! Wait.. It Already Did.

What on earth could I mean by that?

For your horses, spring began when the days started getting longer.  Hormonal changes are triggered by the sun shining later into the day.  This is subtle at first but as the year progresses we begin to see the things we associate with spring – shedding, sometimes allergies to gnats and – uh oh, the grass is growing.

If you have a young, high-metabolism type horse, the grass coming in is the happiest time of the year! However, if you have older horses, fat or metabolic horses (horses with crusty necks and fat pads) or PONIES, this means you need to be considering how to manage your equine friends now – NOT when the grass shows up.  Your horse is already gearing up for breeding season! WHAT, you say?  My gelding can’t breed and I have no intentions of breeding my mare! It doesn’t matter.  Your horses hormones pay no attention to what we want to do and continue to act accordingly. This is even true for geldings – not all hormones are affected by gelding. Ask your vet for more information if you are curious.

This means it’s time for you to consider what your horse has been eating all winter. Often we have upped feed sources to accommodate cold weather burning calories and a lack of grass.  Please take off the blankets and reassess your horses body condition now.  Consult a body scoring chart and be honest.  Does your horse have a cresty neck?  Does he have fat pads over his withers, ribs or tail head?  Is he just plain FAT?  Or alternatively, was winter tough on him?  Can you see ribs and does his neck look thin?  Step behind him *carefully* and assess his topline from behind.  Does he fall off from the croup?

Whatever the situation is, if it’s not perfect, the time to deal with it is now.  Horses and ponies who are metabolic or overweight need changes made to their diets immediately. Often a truly easy keeper can do perfectly well on a high quality vitamin/mineral supplement such as those made by Uckele and hay, with some sort of omega 3/6 supplement.  The horse coming out of winter thin needs accessible protein, attention paid to possible worm-load and careful calories and high nutritional value feed stuffs.  The metabolic horse needs a customized program that may include special supplements to help regulate insulin and decrease the inflammatory process present in these horses.  Extreme care needs to be taken in vaccinating this group of horses, please discuss this with your veterinarian.  If they are not aware of this, do some research on your own before vaccinating so you can make a plan with your vet.

Whatever the situation is, there is an answer.  I hope you’ll consider contacting me if you are not confident in how to handle what you find when the blankets come off.  Here at Dry Creek farm we have a pony who is one diet, a metabolic horse who is on another and two middle of the road TB’s who have yet another diet. I know that processed feeds say you can feed that one feed to all horses – but I feel sure that common sense tells you there’s something not right about that concept as all horses are not the same!

I look forward to hearing about you and your horse.

Why yes, that is a fat OTTB!

One of my frustrations is the stereotype that Thoroughbreds, and particularly OTTBs, are hard keepers.

At one point in my life I rehabilitated and resold horses off the track.  I still do it when a connection has a horse they think would suit my market, but it’s no longer my day job.  But I have a tremendous amount of experience feeding OTTB’s.

Feeding OTTB’s processed feeds creates a vicious cycle. Not only are they prone to being reactive to soy, flax, corn and wheat, they DO metabolize feedstuffs into energy easily. Perhaps energy you aren’t interested in dealing with during the retraining process or perhaps never, depending on your riding goals.  Sadly it’s been accepted that Thoroughbred and particularly horses off the track are spooky, nutty and reactive.

There is a definite adjustment period necessary for some of them to wind down from a busy lifestyle and some of them truly are hardwired for high energy, I won’t deny that.  But the majority of them are not, and I have found that many eventually have ZERO interest in galloping again, sometimes even cantering is a stretch!  And quiet – wow. These horses have seen everything from a young age. If they make it out sound, no amount of riding through pool noodles and “desensitization” clinics can equal what they’ve seen, done and been expected to handle.

In short, the reason OTTB’s are challenging is usually because of what they are fed, how much turnout they receive and the experience of their handlers and riders.  I’ll save that last sentence for another post but I will add that what most OTTB’s want is what they had – a firm expectation of good manners and professionalism. Horses on the track are not abused; but bad manners are not tolerated.  Horses can be and are ruled off the track for bad behavior.

So if you have an OTTB and he’s hot, ulcer-prone, difficult to train and keep weight on – you should start with revamping his feed program to one that is  forage and nutrition based first, calories being focused on last.  The usual recommendations to put weight on an OTTB focus on calories fed through processed feeds and this backfires – so much that there is a fortune being made in selling supplements with names like “Cool Calories”.  The amounts required to be fed to meet all the nutritional needs of any horse in a processed feed are designed for you to feed A LOT OF FEED – so you buy more feed.  Horses stomachs cannot process more than 5 lbs of feed at a time – and this is pushing it – so it’s a recipe for ulcers and malnutrition, not weight gain and a quiet minded horse.

I hope if you are struggling with an OTTB you’ll contact me. I love the American Thoroughbred and would like to help you enjoy yours.  I can be reached at TheWholeHorseNC@gmail.com

Ownership credit of above gorgeous, fat OTTB goes to Amy Bissinger.

Parasites, Part 1—Bots

By Notafly (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons

By Notafly (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0  (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

Warning:  if you are squeamish, you might not want to click on this link.. if you’re like a lot of horse people, you are going to yell, “Oh, gross … that’s cool!”

Bots In A Horse’s Stomach Seen Via Scope

Credit goes to Jim Meeker.

Ok, so if you’ve watched this you’re wondering how do I make sure my horse doesn’t have these in their stomach?

You deworm them.

Bots don’t show up on fecals.  If you have been deworming based on fecals, it is likely your horse has bots in its digestive tract. If you want to know more about how bots get into your horses body, do a Google search.  There are some areas of the world where there are no bots; I do not live in one of those and you probably don’t, either.

Equimax is my preferred bot killer.  Living in a subtropical environment as I do, I don’t wait for the first frost (the usual advice) to deworm for bots.  You may live somewhere that you have killing frosts in October, in North Carolina we don’t.  So I deworm for bots as soon as I see their frequency slowing down and then I deworm again after it gets truly cold with QuestPlus as part of my entire deworming program.

Bot infestations mimic many things:  ulcers, horses who are “picky” eaters, they can create colic and colic symptoms, and they certainly will stop your horse from gaining weight if that is your goal.

I am hearing more and more reports of people having horses scoped because of ulcer suspicions and finding a stomach full of bots instead.  The current trend of deworming based on fecals is causing a lot of misunderstanding; I suggest you discuss it with your vet and if you are not advised to deworm for bots then you will have to do some research on your own.  The video speaks for itself in my opinion.

Let’s Talk About Forage

My feeding philosophy is simple:  horses weren’t designed to live the life we’ve put upon them and it’s our responsibility to feed them in a way that duplicates their natural lifestyle when at all possible.  Let’s look at forage requirements on this page.

The first hard and fast rule about feeding horses is this:  THEY NEED FORAGE.  Horses should have 24/7 access to forage. If your horse is an easy keeper, then this might mean low quality forage that is low in sugar and starches, perhaps even in a slow feeder bag, or grazing in a field that has little grass available.  If your horse is metabolic or prone to laminitis, you might have to soak that hay in order to provide 24/7 forage and still put it in a slow feeder bag.  If your horse is in work and you’re always struggling a bit to keep him in good weight, then higher quality forage is necessary.  If your horse is in hard work then the best quality, free choice forage will be essential.

Providing horses with forage 24/7 can be very expensive. For example, I break out the feed costs of all my horses and one of mine eats $4.50 in hay every day.  That’s $135.00 a month in hay costs alone.  If you are boarding your horse, please understand that the biggest upfront cost your barn has to handle is hay.  Many barns keep costs down by not feeding adequate forage.  The ultimate cost of this is passed onto the consumer, who then often has a horse with ulcers that is difficult to keep weight on, has behavioral issues and truly is mentally focused on getting food instead of work, because that’s how horses are hard wired.  This then translates to buying ulcer medications (cha-ching!), weight gain supplements (cha-ching!) and behavioral supplements and extra training (cha-ching!), vet bills for colicing horses as well as having an unhappy horse and an unhappy owner in general.  Hungry horses just really aren’t their best selves.

Many commercial barns do not have adequate pasture for horses to graze in the summer.  This can very region to region but where I live, in the southeast, we have optimum grazing situations if managed correctly.  For example, I have approximately 15 acres in grass and my pastures are managed for easy keepers, medium keepers and horses who need to gain weight.  I try to keep no more than five horses here at any given time so as to ensure adequate grazing.  In summer, when horses come in during the hotter, buggier part of the day, they have hay in their stalls.

An unfortunate part of horse keeping and horse ownership is that it is expensive.  However, where you choose to spend your dollars can be crucial to your horses health and it is worth crunching numbers to determine if you are boarding in a situation where you’d be better off paying more somewhere else and getting the forage your horse needs to be healthy.  If you keep your horses at home, you have complete control over this and should make it your first priority.  Once you are sure your horse is receiving adequate forage, you can focus on nutrition.

The bottom line is this:  forage should be the mainstay of your horses diet.  Since we have taken away the option of horses having the ability to go seek out their own forage, we have to provide it.  It’s not possible to have truly healthy horses and not provide adequate forage.  I am happy to refer you to hay dealers that I have found to be reliable and trustworthy.